Le coeur glacé (Littérature étrangère) (French Edition)

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He is aware of processes, but his fieldwork rarely attempts to measure them; he is interested in the issue of rates of erosion, but in the absence of data of his own or in the literature he is reduced to airy speculation. Given his diligence in quantifying many elements pebble shape and size, corrie elevation, clay minerals it is intriguing to imagine how he might have utilised the techniques that have since become available.

This parallels a British tradition going back to the Geikies and manifest in textbooks such as Holmes and Sparks. Sadly, this has fallen victim to specialisation.

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There has been no leading landscape geomorphologist in Scotland in recent times with strong geological roots, and vice versa. The Geology of Scotland over its several editions Trewin, makes no pretence of considering the surface expression of bedrock and structure. A recent work on Geology and Landscapes of Scotland aimed at a wider audience Gillen, is excellent on individual features, as befits a geologist, but covers the shaping of the entire Grampian mountain range in a paragraph. It fronts a km gap between the Beinn Dearg and Ben More Assynt massifs which is the most substantial doorway Rudberg, in the main mountain axis of the Highlands.

Yet although noticed by Peach et al. But Godard points out that the basin englobe the igneous intrusion [], and is etched equally across Moinian psammites and the weaker Old Red Sandstone ORS deposits. Even so, he notes that the augen-gneiss is especially resistant to linear incision, yet vulnerable to chemical weathering, thus favouring etching and inverted topography; however his tectonic and erosion-surface explanations for the adjacent Carn Chuinneag augen-gneiss forming distinctive summits are less convincing; v the marked contrast between the high, dissected mountains of the Western Highlands and the lower-key terrain separating them from the Great Glen is conventionally attributed to the steep-dipping—flat-lying transition within the Moine schists the Quoich Line.

Godard notes this, but observes that the steep-belt nevertheless has traces of an undulating highest surface bevelled across it, while the flat-belt terrain rises appreciably to the main watershed where it zig-zags west-east across the Great Glen. He suggests that the more subdued relief in the flat-belt must be attributed to an intermediate planation advancing more readily but incompletely across it [], geological factors and time-constrained geomorphological processes both contributing to the current landscape. Some are exhumed in the great final synthesis, but many are all too easily missed: i he discerns le relief appalachien in present landscapes as disparate as volcanic Ardnamurchan, the environs of Gairloch, and isolated Eday in Orkney; he applies it with more interpretative force to the ORS-buried quartzite ridges of Caithness.

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He attributes this to advancing planation creating an intermediate plateau landscape, which was then subjected to differential glacial erosion []. It takes Godard to show us a possible wood for the trees; iii he draws attention to sequences of rock-cut meanders in the Oykell valley [], on a grander scale at Loch Long—Kyle Rhea [], and more doubtfully in the course of Loch Hourn [], which he suggests must predate glaciation.

It might be thought that Scotland, as a small country where geoscience originated and with a strong research capacity in geomorphology, has been studied to death, but this very familiarity makes Scotland an excellent test bed for new ideas. Regrettably the direction of effort by funding bodies to exotic locations in recent decades leaves many of the challenges raised by Godard still to be pursued.

There are some signs of reawakening interest in the landscape evolution of Scotland after long neglect Bishop et al. This may be his best-known contribution because it is prominent on a fold-out map [his Carte VI], and is accessibly summarised in the text [—]. Hall, pers. While the rival marine and sub-aerial theories could apply to both kinds, presumably only the latter is amenable to interpretation as late-stage Davisian peneplanation.

It is allowed to undulate considerably, providing it remains calme fig. Note the tip of its smooth cone, which probably rose higher before truncation by the deep cirque behind the left shoulder. The paleic surface comprises a distinct monadnock swelling steeply from the broad bench at — m well seen to its right. The summit and shoulders are probably below the main periglacial trimline, but appear only lightly glaciated. Photograph: D. Foreground: not identified by Godard as a surface, but identical to hauts paliers.

Photography: D. Most of skyline not assigned to any surface.

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He perceptively infers climatic environments and processes, and estimates their descending ages from these inferences and from cross-cutting relations, all with very little hard or datable evidence to go on. Unfortunately, he gives neither the criteria employed in his identification and mapping of these surfaces, nor worked examples of how they are to be distinguished in any sequence. This would have been especially important given that their absolute height ranges merge Sissons, a.

Yet when his Carte VI is taken into hills such as Easter Ross where broad surfaces seem well-developed fig. Especially at the upper levels, countless rather uniformly distributed fragments have been selected when much larger areas would seem equally qualified; in the not atypical area of fig. The hauts paliers , for example, cut the Paleogene Volcanics, but quite how they can be traced with confidence to a single base-level event effective from Skye to the east coast is unclear. But Godard does not consider different geneses e.

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Above about m asl, they share similar smooth signatures in air photos, and could all be integrated into a single preglacial land surface of greater overall relief fig. But although the treads of this staircase occupy about half the terrain at least at lower levels , it is not clear what status is assigned to the other half: the white spaces on Carte VI. These intervening strips are too pervasive to be simply the risers between sub-tropical pediments, and they can hardly be attributed to blurring by glaciation.

Have these strips evolved coevally with the surfaces at their feet, or do they represent degradation of original scarp-like risers, encroaching into the surfaces above, and if so over what timescales? This proposition is then sledgehammered on six counts, all didactically compelling, but the original question still begs more discussion see glacial inefficacity below. His researches just precede the advent of etch-planation, which Hall identifies as the key process in humid sub-tropical Tertiary erosion in the Highlands, and much of what he describes anticipates this model.

Of course, earlier planation surfaces are likely to become progressively more modified, but it is unclear whether his identification procedures allow for this. But since planation can presumably propagate from any resistant rock barrier or tectonic break creating a local base-level, there must in practice be an increasingly anarchic overlapping of locally and regionally originated surfaces over time. It would be intriguing to have a Godardian structural geomorphologist analyse a basin with several possible controls such as Monar fig.

For location see fig. Note that valley widths at the m contour, just 10 km east of the watershed, are 1. It is not obviously a glacial breach in origin as are the adjacent gaps and the narrow passes to the west. It may be a pre-glacial incision maintaining the continuity of the Monar-Farrar river, as drainage orientations confirm, perhaps accentuated by glacifluvial action. Erosion surfaces mapped at small scale by Godard and considerably extended from field, map, and air photo evidence suggest a hilly paleic relief, with smooth spurs down to m asl.

With justifiable exasperation, A. Hall pers.

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Perhaps in pursuit of suitable analogues for Scotland? Yet Godard et al.

However, it has never been critically evaluated figs 3 and 4 , and has lain dormant, no doubt because it is unconducive to precise measurement, process verification, and objective proof. The advent of techniques such as Digital Elevation Models and LiDAR imagery ought to assist identification, although the effort of Ringrose and Migon in a transect across the Central Highlands lacks conviction in the absence of Godardian groundtruthing.

Nielsen, pers.

Even if this is challenged, the terrain patterns which Godard sought to map do exist fig. This is not a new perception Geikie recognised a summit tableland but Godard is the first to examine it minutely. This surface should repay thorough remapping and testing with new techniques, not least since it is the most likely to have survived glacial modification; a sample area around Monar suggests it could be considerably extended fig.

In his reluctance to comprehend this surface as a whole, and in bracketing it with the multi-storeyed Tertiary planation stages, Godard misses the possibility of tracing an evolution, however exiguous, from the original shaping of the Highlands. Likewise, he recognises that the pre-Devonian surface on which the Old Red Sandstone ORS accumulated was hilly, evidencing valleys cut in Moine schists as deep as m in the Inchbae area [ ] fig.

It is curious that Godard seems unable to visualise a diachronous sub-Devonian surface encapsulating a moving moment in the shaping of the Caledonian mountains, as the products of their rapid erosion lapped steadily higher up their still-rising slopes. For locations see fig. The Inchbae cuvette or internal basin is not confined to the augen-gneiss outcrop, but englobe three lithologies. The cross-section suggests how they might assist in reconstructing its scale soon after the close of the Caledonian orogeny geology interpolated from British Geological Survey sections in vicinity. Key to symbols: 1: Old Red Sandstone on basal unconformity , with M Middle and L Lower; the contact at SE flank is Emsian ; 2: breccia and conglomerate; 3: breccia and conglomerate along fringes; 4: sources of conglomerate after Peach et al.

The notional profile of the Wyvis range is centred above the reconstructed preglacial whaleback mountain, which in turn reflects the greater resistance of the Glenfinnan Group pelites. The high SE face is adopted from Trewin and Thirlwall , fig.

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By definition the ORS deposits can never have covered the summits or higher ridges fig. Thus no trace of the final form of the summit relief at the end of the orogeny can have been preserved.

The possibility of continuous sub-aerial evolution from emergent Caledonide mountainscape to present paleic relief appears not to have occurred to Godard or earlier workers.