The Elemental Journal: Composing Artful Expressions from Items Cast Aside

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Form as a Visual Element of Art

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Introduction

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Improve Your Brain Power! Allen Sr. Jako pdf download Antonie Schneider. Some tribal artists would take time to pay their respects to the life-force of a tree, requesting its permission to be cut down and used to make a carving. They felt that the tree had its own soul and that its wood was the natural host for the spirit of their work.

This kind of holistic approach to carving invested the form of a mask with a certain integrity that reflected contemporary ideas about 'truth to materials' where the sculptor respects the natural properties of wood or stone and allows them to show through in the finished work.

The adoption of these so-called 'primitive' conventions by modern artists actually widened the parameters of artistic creativity and encouraged a more experimental attitude to the development of the form, medium and content of an artwork. The sculpture of Henry Moore links the 'classical' with the 'primitive' and the figure with the landscape in an ambiguous relationship of form and space. You can see all these elements working simultaneously in his wood carving of a 'Reclining Figure' from The 'classical' in this sculpture lies in its subject matter which references numerous works of art from different eras stretching back to Greco-Roman antiquity.

The 'primitive' element was inspired by the reclining pose of Chacmool figures, Pre-Columbian statues that date back to around A. Moore's admiration of 'primitive' art was not confined to African culture, but also included Pre-Columbian and Oceanic art. On the same walk around the work, the ambiguity of these undulating forms may assume a geological metaphor where the figure adopts an Neolithic quality, like a stone that has been worn smooth and hollowed out by centuries of erosion.

With another perceptual shift you may discern the configuration of a landscape where the form of the sculpture takes on the nature of hills, valleys, canyons, cliffs and caves. This synthesis of figure and landscape is one of the major themes of Henry Moore's work. Its skillful carving and polished finish highlight its wood grain which behaves like an ingrained drawing that defines the contours of its form.

Modelling is a process of adding form which is traditionally applied with malleable materials like wax or clay. Modelling offers the sculptor more freedom of expression than carving due to the tactility of its media, its speed of application and the adaptability of its techniques. Unlike wood or stone, if you make a mistake in your work you can scrape it out and add fresh material or smooth it down and start again. Modelling is often a transitional phase in the development of a sculpture.

Models in clay or wax, which are soft materials, are usually cast in harder materials like bronze, plaster or reinforced plastics to give them a more durable finish. Good casting can give a perfect reproduction of the surface of the original model. In our detail of Rodin's 'Call to Arms' , which was originally modelled in clay before it was cast in bronze , you can see the vitality and physicality of the artist at work in the energetic imprints of his fingers and hands as he pushes and pulls the clay over surface of the sculpture. Auguste Rodin stands at the cutting edge of modern sculpture in a similar position that Claude Monet holds in relation to modern painting.

As Monet was captivated by the changing effects of light on color, Rodin was fascinated by the changing play of light across the surface of a sculpture and how that generated the internal energy of the work. Since the heights of Michelangelo's mannerism and the baroque dramas of Bernini, the power of sculpture as a creative force had gradually diminished to the level of the academic and the ornamental. Rodin's career as a sculptor followed a conventional path until when he visited Italy and saw the works of Michelangelo.

These had such a profound effect on him that he declared in a letter to his assistant, the sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, 'My liberation from academicism came through Michelangelo, who by teaching me rules diametrically opposed to those I had been taught, freed me What Rodin learned from Michelangelo was how to use the human form as a vehicle for emotional expression. Onto the academic rigour of his early training, Rodin grafted the distortion and exaggeration of Michelangelo's mannerist style, the evocative potential of his 'non finito' Michelangelo's unfinished sculptures and an expressive modelling technique whose rippling surface lit up his figures with an animated interplay of light and shade.

While Michelangelo had carved his figures in stone, Rodin modelled his in clay and it was the fluidity of this material that sparked life into his turbulent forms. However, the work was later cast in as monument to the French soldiers who fought at Verdun during the First World War. It comprises two figures emerging from a 'non finito' base and back. Rodin's figure of the winged genius from 'Call to Arms' reappears as an independent form in 'The Spirit of War', a freestanding sculpture of Rodin often recast figures and used them in different configurations and contexts, an approach to composition that was adopted by many 20th century artists.

Alberto Giacometti had a direct line of artistic descendance from Rodin having studied under Antoine Bourdelle, a former assistant to the sculptor. Rodin, who always worked from life models, had sought to reflect the vitality of the human form through the play of light and shade on his vigorously modelled surfaces. Giacometti's earlier work was first associated with Cubism , then Surrealism , followed by the influence of the spindly Etruscan bronze votive figures that contributed to his mature style.

He claimed that his work of this later period was motivated by witnessing the death throes of his neighbour, Tonio Potosching, in the days before and hours after he passed away. At that moment, a fly approached the black hole of the mouth and slowly disappeared inside. The existential gap that he perceived between the state of 'Being and Nothingness' [8] became the theme of his work for the rest of his life.

He tried to exorcise his psychological trauma by pursuing the elusive spirit of his subject matter rather than simply describing its physical presence. He would eagerly shape and reshape the head in his search for that ephemeral spirit of 'being'. Giacometti always worked directly in front of the model, so intensively fixed on a perpendicular perspective that his observation and insight concentrated his vision into the pinch-edged form that we recognize as his style.

He later tried to explain the artistic struggle that he experienced in this approach, 'The more I looked at the model, the more the screen between his reality and mine grew thicker. One starts by seeing the person who poses, but little by little all the possible sculptures of him intervene.